In 1988, the Department of Defense (DoD), the Army, and the Marine Corps began activities aimed at consolidating their separate efforts in developing battlefield ground robotic vehicles into a joint program to be known as the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program. This consolidation preceded congressional language in the FY 89 Defense Appropriations Bill which required DoD to "advance joint robotics programs or joint development efforts." The Marine Corps (Marine Corps Research, Development and Acquisition Center (MCRDAC)) had been pursuing a program known as the Teleoperated Vehicle (TOV) while the Army Missile Command Research, Development and Engineering Center (RDEC) had been developing the Teleoperated Mobile All-purpose Platform (TMAP). The UGV/S JPO was formed as a focal point to eliminate duplication of effort for robotic systems in the DoD joint robotics effort and to develop and field UGV systems. The UGV/S JPO is an integral part of the DoD Joint Robotics Program.